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Index to Creationist Claims,  edited by Mark Isaak,    Copyright © 2004
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Claim CC050:

All hominid fossils are fully human or fully ape.


  1. There is a fine transition between modern humans and australopithecines and other hominids. The transition is gradual enough that it is not clear where to draw the line between human and not.

    Intermediate fossils include

    And there are fossils intermediate between these (Foley 1996-2004).

  2. Creationists themselves disagree about which intermediate hominids are human and which are ape (Foley 2002).

  3. There is abundant genetic evidence for the relatedness between humans and other apes:


Foley, Jim. 1996-2004. Fossil hominids: The evidence for human evolution.

Drews, Carl, 2002. Transitional fossils of hominid skulls.


  1. Avarello, R., A. Pedicini, A. Caiulo, O. Zuffardi, M. Fraccaro, 1992. Evidence for an ancestral alphoid domain on the long arm of human chromosome 2. Hum Genet 89(2): 247-249.
  2. Bermudez de Castro, J. M. et al., 1997. A hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans. Science 276: 1392-1395.
  3. Foley, Jim, 1996-2003. (see above)
  4. Foley, Jim, 2002. Comparison of all skulls,
  5. IJdo, J. W., A. Baldini, D. C. Ward, S. T. Reeders and R. A. Wells, 1991. Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere-telomere fusion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 88(20): 9051-9055.
  6. Max, Edward E., 2003. Plagiarized errors and molecular genetics.
  7. Taylor, D. M. 2003. Alignment of Chimp_rp43-42n4 against human chromosome 15. See also Taylor, D. M. 2003 (Jun 3). Re: Evolutionary Misconceptions on Evolution.
  8. White, Tim D. et al., 2003. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423: 742-747.
  9. Yunis, J. J. and O. Prakash, 1982. The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy. Science 215: 1525-1530.

Further Reading:

Johanson, D. C., and B. Edgar, 1996. From Lucy to Language. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Leakey, M. and A. Walker, 1997. Early hominid fossils from Africa. Scientific American 276(6) (June): 74-79.

Tattersall, Ian, 1995. The Fossil Trail. New York: Oxford.
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created 2003-6-4, modified 2004-9-30